Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Impact of Globalisation in High Education Essay

Impact of Globalisation in High Education - Essay Example The facet of globalization has been found to engage the transformation of international markets that are carrying out its business operations on a real time basis in widespread financial structures followed by unparalleled degree in relation to Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs) and even global mobility in terms of production. Apart from being involved with the mentioned rudiments, globalization in the recent times is measured to be greatly dependent on the global communication structures, knowledge, information, along with culture. The underlying notion of globalization has been explained as the actuality that is formed or created with the help of a soaring incorporated global economy, fresh information along with communication technology. It is in this context that the certainties with regard to the 21st century have triggered the amplification of the imperativeness related to the international context. The English language, in this regards, has been measured to be the overriding or prevailing language with respect to scientific form of communication. The factor of technology is considered to be an integral part of globalization as a worldwide way of immediate contact accompanied by easy type of scientific communication has been found to be triggered with the introduction of modern technology. Therefore, it can be well comprehended from the stated depiction that the significance and requirement of technology are gauged to be an integral part of present globalization in comparison to the past.... All these mentioned factors are found to display an inclination towards a sole global community. The underlying notion of globalisation has been explained as the actuality that is formed or created with the help of a soaring incorporated global economy, fresh information along with communication technology. It is in this context that the certainties with regard to the 21st century have triggered the amplification of the imperativeness related to the international context. The English language, in this regards, has been measured to be the overriding or prevailing language with respect to scientific form of communication. The factor of technology is considered to be an integral part of globalisation as a worldwide way of immediate contact accompanied by easy type of scientific communication has been found to be triggered with the introduction of modern technology. Therefore, it can be well comprehended from the stated depiction that the significance and requirement of technology is gau ged to be an integral part of present globalisation in comparison to the past (Altbach & et. al., 2009). Students as Stakeholders of Higher Education Sector The students are believed to comprise of the majority stakeholder group with respect to the facet of higher education across the globe. During the past decade, key alterations and moves have been recorded in terms of demographic makeup, goals and prospects in relation to the populace of the students worldwide. These forms of growth have been known to have put forth noteworthy pressure on the structural procedures followed by individual institutions with regard to the factor of higher education in several countries. Endeavours to react to fresh student

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Digital Forensic Incident Response Research Paper

Digital Forensic Incident Response - Research Paper Example eader with a more detailed understanding the way in which an IT firm could seek to abide by the instructions and determinants of the job at hand; all the while protecting themselves from further legal entanglement and seeking to provide a high quality output so that the case in question can be determined based upon its own merits and not biased by any degree of overlooked or misinformed information gathering. Essentially, the approach that will be utilized as a means of gaining the affected information will be twofold. The first will be contingent upon engaging with mobile phone providers and email providers as a function of retaining the information in question, within the date range in question, and between the people in question. The second will be contingent upon a more high tech approach in which individual laptops, company computers, and mobile phones will be subpoenaed by the court for further analysis by the IT firm. In this way a level of double certainty can be provided tha t any and all communication between interested individuals can be represented. In tandem with the low-tech approach that has been stipulated, the majority of data analysis and retrieval will not be conducted by the IT firm itself; instead, this information will be provided to the IT firm by mobile phone providers and email providers related to the case in question. Essentially, once a verifiable war it has been presented to the stakeholders, the information will need to be categorized and represented based upon the timeframe that the case is specifically interested in. Although this is a fairly simple aspect of the process that is being defined within this analysis, it is absolutely essential to ensure that further litigation against the IT firm does not take place. This is due to the fact that the court has only appointed a specific range and time for these email and text message conversations to be analyzed. Specifically, the court has indicated that text messages and emails

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Analysis of Employee Treatment in MNCs in Malaysia

Analysis of Employee Treatment in MNCs in Malaysia According to The Columbia Encyclopedia (2008), a multinational company also called as multinational enterprise (MNE) or transactional corporation (TNC); it is a corporation business enterprise with manufacturing, sales, or service subsidiaries in one or more foreign countries. It can also be referred to as an international corporation. Besides that, Mohamed A. Youssef (2004) said that multinational companies are firms that engages in foreign direct investment and owns or controls value-adding activities in more than one country. The study of multinational companies is relevant to the major theme of changing national business systems in two important ways. Firstly, multinational companies reflect the strengths and weaknesses of their own country. Second, multinational companies work in at least two different national business systems, in their home and host countries (Maurits van Os, Gerarda Westerhuis, Onno de Wit, 2003). The Multinational companies are a powerful vehicle for the transfer of not only the capital and other production functions but also managerial and technical knowledge across nations (Limerick, 2004). Based on Bartletts (2003) research, the multinational corporations account for 40% of the worlds manufacturing output and almost a quarter of the world trade. About 85% of the worlds automobiles, 70% of computer and 65% of soft drinks are produced and marketed by multinational corporations. During the last two decades, many smaller corporations also become multinational, some of them in developing nations (The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2008). This often results in very powerful corporations that have budgets that exceed some nationals GDP and multinational corporations play an important role in international relations and globalization (Multimedia Corporation, 2009). In Bartlett (2003) research shows that in 1973, the United Nations defined the multinational corporation as an enterprise which control assets, factories, mines, sales offices and the like in two or more countries. The first qualification required a multinational corporation to have substantial direct investment in foreign countries and not just an export business. The second requisite for a true multinational corporation would be a company that engaged in the active management of these offshore assets rather than simply holding them in a passive financial portfolio. Overview of Multinational Companies in Malaysia Malaysia ranks as among the worlds top 20 attractive countries for foreign direct investment, according to the World Investment Prospects Survey 2007-2009. Among the Southeast Asian countries, Malaysia was the third favourite foreign direct investment location, just after the Vietnam and Thailand (Rajeswari Raman, 2008). Historically, multinational corporations in Malaysian manufacturing were concentrated in import substitution production in areas such as foods and beverages, chemicals and pharmaceutical. Their involvement in export production was limited to some processing activities linked to primary product sectors. In 1970s, there was a dramatic transformation in the product structure of multinational corporations participation. From about the mid-1980s, production for the domestic market has become secondary to using Malaysia as a base for manufacturing for the global market (Multinational Enterprises, Employment and Real Wages in Malaysian Manufacturing, 2005). According to Halims (2000) study, foreign direct investment has always been a major factor in developing Malaysias industrial sector. The promoting of the presence of the multinational corporations in Malaysia is to provide domestic firms with access to advanced technologies through subcontracting, the creation of spin-off firms, OEM and training activities. The Malaysian government encourages direct foreign investment, particularly in export oriented manufacturing and high-tech industries, but it has discretionary authority over individual investments. Malaysia has a stated policy of not promoting low value-added and labour-industries, preferring quality investments. A foreign company or a multinational corporation can conduct business in Malaysia through setting up a representative office, registering a branch office, setting up a joint venture company or granting patent licenses and franchising. General policy limits foreign equity to minority 30 percent shares, but 100 percent fo reign ownership in manufacturing is permitted in certain instances for export-oriented industries ( According to list of multinational companies in Malaysia (2009), there are 37 major industry sectors covered in the foreign companies in Malaysia which are: Academic food drink petrochemicals Accountancy government pharmaceuticals/medical Agriculture/environmental individual printing/paper Aviation/defence insurance real estate/property Banking/finance IT/computers/software retail Chemicals legal services Chemicals/petrochemicals machinery/equipment telecoms/communications Construction/engineering manufacturing textiles Consultancy media tourism/travel/leisure Consultancy goods motor industry transport Electronics/electrical oil gas Energy/utilities packaging Multinational corporations from more than 60 countries have invested in over 3,000 companies in Malaysias manufacturing sector, currently 1052 regional establishments were approved, which included 67 operational headquarters, 182 international procurement centres, 29 regional distribution centres, 579 representative offices and 195 regional offices. The main sources of foreign investment were from USA, Germany and Japan (Rajeswari Raman, 2008). Manufacturing goods, mainly products from the electronics and electrical (E E) industries make up the Malaysias largest body of exports. However, most manufactured exports were produced by foreign firms in Malaysia. For example, the electronics industry which contributes more than half the exports of manufactured goods comprised mostly foreign owned multinationals (Abd Halim, 2000). Based on Rajeswari Raman (2008) research, the major factor that has attracted investors to invest in Malaysia is the governments commitment to maintain a business environment that provides companies with the opportunities for growth and profits. The government having the regular government-private sector dialogues and these allow the various business communities to air their views and to contribute toward the formulation of government policies which concern them. Besides, the Malaysian government offers multinational corporations a range of incentives designed to encourage the establishment of subsidiaries that are regarded as especially advantageous. The incentives primarily entail taxation allowances and more liberal ownership rights for investments (1) in particular industries like the manufacturing and high technology, (2) in particular geographic locations such as the Multinational Super Corridor or the Eastern Corridor, (3) offer significant learning opportunities such as from research and development and have particular strategic roles like the operational headquarters and international procurement centres (Southeast Asia, A New Era in Asian Shipping,2005). By the mid-1980s, there was a growing conviction among the Malaysian policy circles that certain elements of the ethnicity-based affirmative action policy of the NEP were inconsistent with the national economic goal of achieving greater integration of the Malaysian economy with the global economy. These policy inconsistencies were redressed and further incentives for foreign investors were introduced under the promotion of Investment Act passed in 1986 (Multinational Enterprises, Employment and Real Wages in Malaysian Manufacturing, 2005). The increasing trends of outsourcing of core as well as non-core activities by large multinational corporations have open greater investment opportunities in the provision of support services. Malaysia continues to enjoy healthy surplus in the external trade, low unemployment as well as strong international reserves and high national savings (Rajeswari Raman, 2008). According to Rajeswari Raman (2008), the private sector in Malaysia has become partners with the public sector in achieving the nations development objectives. Justification Based on Jaime Bonache (2005) finding, job satisfaction is usually defined as an affective or emotional response toward ones job. A better salary, for an identical level effort, will determine the decision to quit and a higher level of satisfaction. To expect more and active contributions from the staff members to the company, satisfaction will become the natural choice. Furthermore, regarding the reason for demission, the American company attributes it to the culture and the Japanese company thinks that the most important reasons for demission are disappointment on welfare and the work satisfaction. Both American company and the Japanese company recognize that the requirement of employees should be fully concerned. The welfare, working environment, job satisfaction, and the self-realization are the three factors that motivate the staff. Sonal Shukla (2009) found out that appreciation and recognition are more important and meaningful than a financial pay raise or a position promotion . It is important for providing the satisfactory welfare package in the company, learn and try to meet the employees requirement, create chance for self-improvement and wide space for self-development to the employee in the company because the welfare, individual career development, and the company brand are the three attractive aspects. (Yuanqiang Zhou, Lei Lu, Bo Jiang, 2005). Besides that, according to Jaime Bonache (2005), a person can be relatively satisfied with the absolute monetary rewards he or she received and dissatisfied with how they fare relative to others, or with other aspects of his or her job. Job satisfaction will not be understood as a unitary concept, but as an affective or emotional response toward various facets of ones job, and in which processes of social comparison take place. Furthermore, Jaime Bonache (2005) lodge that satisfaction results from ones perception that work outcomes, relative to the inputs, compares favourably with a significant others outcomes and inputs. We can identify the referent used in the individuals comparisons by analyzing peoples satisfaction with their salary. Through Sonal Shukla (2009) research, it is accepted that a satisfied, secure and happy employee during times of a recession, gives back much more to the organization in terms of loyalty and performance. A low level of salary satisfaction is a very common problem among all types of employees. It is well known that employees on international assignments are particularly costly for most organizations (Jaime Bonache, 2005). According to John Stredwick (2000), the pay must become more variable instead of a wage or salary being a fixed amount each week, month or year. A growing proportion should become contingent upon performance. Performance can be measured on an individual basis, often called performance related pay, or through the team based pay, gain sharing or the profit related pay. In addition, there must have the final change for the basic pay itself, which also need to become more flexible. The 1st thing that needs to be changed is in how levels of basic pay have been determined. In the public sector and in many large private concerns, basic pay levels used to be subject to national negotiations between a collection of unions and officials from the trade association or government body. Furthermore, according to John Stredwick (2000), the reward issues need to play a major part to produce a high-performance people machine, focused on organizational objectives. Many schemes of performance related pay have a built in conflict because they have been devised to reward the achievements of individuals while other parts of the human resource policy puts great emphasis on building up team working skills and practice. To release the company from the conflict, there must be a reward strategy in place. It must be derived from and contribute to corporate strategy and be based on corporate values and beliefs. A further development in reward strategy is related to the development of competencies. Organizations have identified specific competencies which can differentiate them from their competitors. So, rewards must contingent upon circumstances and performance (John Stredwick, 2000). Problem statements Nowadays, the economic down turn has given a lot of impacts to each companies and organizations, especially the multinational corporations because they have a lot of transnational companies in each country. No one can run away from this economic down turn and each countrys exports and imports have decreased dramatically in 2009. Malaysia also suffered in this financial crisis and the Malaysia government has tried their best to cushion the economic. Organizations also cut down the employee welfare to lower their monthly expenses. The Watson Wyatt survey shows that 61% of employers expect their current financial performances to remain poor at least until the end of 2009. About half said they plan to increase their cost-cutting actions in 2009 and beyond (Sarah, 2009). In view of recession, additional financial measures for welfare may not be possible. According to Sonal Shukla (2009), recession changed the work of work culture where cost-cutting plays a predominant part. The first affe cted are the employee welfare. All the luxuries enjoyed by the employees are either reduces or may come to a standstill. Furthermore, although the rewards system can motivate the employees to perform well and become the companys core competitive advantage, some of the organizations seldom provide the rewards system in their organizations. The employees will only get the bonus or incentives once or twice a year but this is quite hard to motivate the employees. Most of the Asian companies still experience double-digit voluntary turnover rate like the India (13.8 percent) and China (10.3 percent). An organizations ability to retain talent is a challenge facing all companies. This provides challenges to be more innovative in retaining the top people in the organizations with a tighter budget during the recession time (Salary Increases Decline in Asia Pacific after One Year of Economic Turmoil, Hewitt Annual Salary Increase Study Reports, 2009). Besides that, organizations in Malaysia rarely provide the self-improvement and the self-development environment for the employees. The employees will lost their aspirations towards the organizations because they will feel that they cannot have any improvement in the organizations and they will resign the job. Employees will feel that the organizations are not pay attention to their basic needs and the organizations will also lost the high productivity workers and the turnover rate will be very high. This issue will become more serious during the economic downturn. According to Sarah (2009), during the recession time, most of the employers will intend to save the money by freezing salaries, reducing workweeks and eliminating the training programs and 18% intend to reduce or eliminate tuition reimbursement and subsidized other financial perks. Lastly, the basic pay, or the salaries for the employees are very low amongst each companies. The fresh graduate with a bachelors degree can only command a basic salary ranging from RM1, 600 to RM3, 500, with a median of Rm2, 000 per month (Betty Yeoh, 2009). This issue becomes more serious after the world is having the economic down turn and the economic in each country are still very unstable. However, the low basic pay cannot match with the real life that the employees are facing with. 2009 the actual salary increase rate went down by 4 percent and 8 percent respectively and over 60 percent of responding companies keeping wages constant (Salary Increases Decline in Asia Pacific after One Year of Economic Turmoil, Hewitt Annual Salary Increase Study Reports, 2009). Now all the products prices increase the total expenses of each month become bigger and bigger but the salary still remains unchanged. The low basic pay will demotivate the employees and the productivity will also become very low. In short run, the low basic pay may cut down the total operating expenses of the organizations but in long run, the quality of the products will decrease and the organizations need spend more money to increase their production. Based on the above scenarios, there is an urgent need for a deep discussion on the following problem: The cutting down of the welfares towards the employees in multinational companies The cutting down of the self-development and self-improvement activities in multinational companies The absence of the attractiveness of the incentives and bonus in multinational companies The low basic pay in the multinational companies Research Objectives There are three main objectives in this study, which are: To address the adoption of compensations and benefits in the multinational corporations. A well designed and managed compensations system can change the employees behaviour and their passion in their works, in order to improve their performance and productivity. The compensations may become a very critical in supporting managers to achieving the organizations goal. Furthermore, a good compensation system may also develop a positive organizational culture. It may influence the degree to which the employees view the organization is having the human resource-oriented, result based oriented and so on. Consequently, compensations not only influence on individual, but also affect the whole organization as a result. To examine the satisfaction towards compensations in the multinational companies will affect the performance. Compensations can be considered as the best ways to ensure performance at the individual level. The employees may perform well when they get the high job satisfactions from the compensations. However, there are some arguments that indicate that the compensations may not be able to assist the workers to enhance their performance, and it may also lead to a negative organizational climate, which needs to use the compensations to motivate the workers and the absence of commitment to organizational objectives. To examine the satisfaction towards the benefits in the multinational companies will affect the performance. The main purpose for having the benefits is to motivate workers to perform better well. It plays a critical role in affecting individual performance. It is critical to make sure that the benefits systems are effective in motivating individual performance as the increasing of importance of this systems in achieving organizations goal. Organization of Paper Chapter one addresses the overview of multinational companies, the overview of multinational companies in Malaysia, the research problems, the objectives and the significance of the study. From the overviews, we will have the brief idea on what are multinational companies and the multinational companies in Malaysia. Besides that, from the research problems, we will notice that what exactly happened around the world and we will understand what other researchers have found out from the significance of the study. Furthermore, form the objectives this part can know the main purposes to have this research. In chapter two will reviews issues that related on the compensations and the multinational corporations literature. The role of the multinational companies, the conflict amongst the multinational companies and the labour union in Malaysia will be reviews in Chapter 2. Furthermore, Chapter 2 will also explain what are compensations and benefits towards the employees, the types of compensations and benefits, the importance to have the compensations and benefits. In chapter three, will discuss the research method and the theoretical framework of the study. Chapter three also will present the development of the hypothesis to further describe the relationships between the independent variables and the dependent variables. Besides that, Chapter three will also include the questionnaire that used in this study. In chapter four, will discuss the results of the statistical analysis of the data and the hypothesis tested. We want to know that the results will match with the finding from other researchers. Lastly, chapter five will have a comprehensive discussion on the finding of this study, the limitations, recommendations and suggestions for future research. Chapter 2: Literature Review Introduction In this chapter, author presents the literature background on the multinational companies, the compensations and the benefits to the employees. Author will discuss the role of the multinational companies in Malaysia and their force and the conflict amongst the multinational companies with employees. As noted in chapter one, the performance can be generally affected by the basic pay, performance related pay, the welfare, the employees development and the reward system (Jaime Bonache 2005; Sonal Shukla 2009; Yuanqing Zhou, Lei Lu, Bo Jiang, 2005; John Stredwick 2000). Therefore, in this chapter, relevant study background will be study to understand the types of the compensations and the benefits, and the importance to have the compensations and benefits. As workers or the employees are the manpower of the company, there is a need to examine what will motivate the workers or the employees to perform better by using the compensations and the benefits package. Additionally, employers need to identify which plan will be more suitable and preferable in motivating a certain performance. Foreign direct investment (FDI) represents one component of the international business flow and includes start-ups of new operations, as well as purchases of existing companies. Firms will choose to become multinational to reduce the direct and indirect costs, to reduce the capital costs, to reduce taxes, to reduce logistics costs, to overcome tariff barriers, to provide better customer service, to spread foreign exchange risks, to build alternative supply sources, to pre-empt potential competitors, to learn from local suppliers, and to attract talent globally (Zubair M. Mohamed, Mohamed A. Youssef, 2004). According to Zubair M. Mohamed and Mohamed A. Youssef (2004), there are six strategic roles for foreign factories of multinational companies, they are; off-shore factory, source factory, server factory, contributor factory, output factory, and the lead factory. An off-shore factory is established to produce specific items at a low-cost and then export for further rework or for resale. For the source factory, is also a low-cost production but gives local managers authority over production planning, redesign, process changes, and out-bound logistics. The primary purpose of the server factory supplies specific national or regional markets. It typically provides a way to overcome tariff barriers, logistics costs, and exposure to foreign exchange fluctuations. Furthermore, a contributor factory also serves a national or regional market, as developed as a source factory, has more powers to develop products, process engineering, sources of supply, and development of production capabilities. Besides that, an output factorys primary role is to collect information. They are located where competitors, research laboratories, or customers are located. Lastly, a lead factory creates new processes, products, and technologies for entire company. It should be noted that the choice of the factory not only influences the location, but also the operating decisions of the facility. The shorter product life cycles, fragmented and saturated markets, more demanding customers, consolidation and mergers of companies, and rapid advances in processes and technology always present a dynamic competitive situation. A firm need to made the decisions related to international locations, production strategy, and operations strategy when they decides to become an multinational companies (Zubair M. Mohamed, Mohamed A. Youssef, 2004).he From the list of multinational companies in Malaysia (2009), there have 1690 multinational companies in Malaysia. The Role of Multinational Companies Multinational corporations have played an important role in globalization. Countries and sometimes sub national regions must compete against one another for the establishment of multinational corporations facilities, and the subsequent tax revenue, employment, and economic activity. To compete, countries and regional political districts sometimes offer incentives to multinational corporations such as tax breaks, pledges of governmental assistance or improved infrastructure, or lax environmental and labour standards enforcement (Multimedia Corporation, 2009). In the fifty year from 1950 to 2000 world trade grew by a remarkable 1,700 percent. There is an unprecedented growth in both trade and international investment leading directly to a remarkable growth in living standards, not just in developed, industrialized world but also in many developing countries when there is a period of remarkable openness in the international economy (John Browne, 2002). Multinational companies expected to help develop the region where they operate by hiring local employees, providing training programs, sourcing locally and consequently supporting the local economy (Juliette Bennett, 2002). In addition, Juliette Bennett (2002) said that multinational organizations are increasingly drawing the private sector into the global initiative against corruption in order to encourage good governance and conflict prevention. When US multinational companies invest abroad, they usually introduce their management practices, along with production technology, into less developed countries (Daniel A. Sauers, Steven C.H. Lin, Jeff Kennedy, Jana Schrenkler, 2009). Besides that, according to Juliette Bennett (2002), good corporate governance at home and abroad, promoting economic inclusiveness and community goodwill and it are very important elements of international security. The intercourse between the business and the government for the sharing skills and expertise can be valuable in promoting regional and global stability. Of course the multinational companies cannot and should not replace governments as the primary actors in international peacekeeping. However, multinational corporations working in partnerships with government and the civil society can use their business skills and financial leverage to promote regional stability. Furthermore, the multinational companies are a powerful vehicle for the transfer of not only the capital and other production functions but also managerial and technical knowledge across nations (Wenchuan Liu, 2004). Corporations have an interest in leveraging their skills and impact to promote stability in their areas of operation. All the multinational companies should bear some responsibility for the effects of their operations on the local environment and population (Juliette Bennett 2002). There are a lot of constructive engagements drives by the multinational corporations. For examples, the use of solar powered equipment to such as refrigerators which can store vital medicines in remote areas and the support for the creation of civil society in countries damaged by conflict and violence. There is a commitment from the multinational corporations to diversity founded not on quotas but based on the ability. Merit becomes the guiding factor which influences the multinational corpor ations approach to people everywhere (John Browne, 2002). Lastly, according to Juliette Bennett (2002), multinational companies can contribute to crisis management in conflict zones through commercial or philanthropic support for humanitarian relief and responsible management of security arrangements for the companys operations, thereby minimizing the risks of human rights abuses. Many cross-sector partnerships promote international security and explore conflict prevention, crisis management and post-conflict reconstruction strategies that address the three principal causes of conflict: corruption, poverty and social inequality. However, there is a strongly argued view that in the poorer countries of the world the role of multinationals is exploitative, environmentally damaging, and hostile to human rights and democracy, and divisive, destroying established communities. It distorts the process of development against the interests of local communities. It challenges protected niches, and established patterns of activity. It is disruptive and in places where the adjustment mechanisms are imperfect of nonexistent it produces casualties (John Browne, 2002). Besides that, according to Juliette Bennett (2002), globalization creates poverty and inequality, which in turn create the motive for much violence. Juliette Bennett further explained that the private sector is becoming more public-minded, while the public sector is becoming more business-minded. The Influence of Multinational Companies According to Maral Muratbekova-Touron (2008), globalization processes during the past decades has led to the development of the large multinational companies expanding their activities across countries and continents. One of the main issues facing the development of the global companies has always been to find the right balance between the local autonomy between subsidiaries and the control of the corporate headquarters. Compared with domestic firms, the operation of multinational companies foreign subsidiary is complicated by the existence of the dual imperatives to serve both the needs of the parent company, and possibly of other sister subsidiaries (Riliang Qu, 2007). According to Zubair M. Mohamed and Mohamed A. Youssef (2004), the growing trend among multinational companies is to leverage organizational practices across their international subsidiaries in order to improve the worldwide use of their organizational skills as an important source of competitive advantage. Traditional thinking assumed that corporate head quarters of multinational companies are responsible for the decisions concerning the roles and the capabilities of the foreign subsidiaries. However in recent reach showed that in some circumstances the management at multinational companies foreign subsidiaries are responsible for defining the strategies and objectives of their subsidiaries, within the constraints set for their opera tion (Riliang Qu, 2007). According to Daniel A. Sauers, Steven C.H. Lin, Jeff Kennedy, Jana Schrenkler (2009), Multinational companies faced the problems relate to the cultural differences. Thus, subsidiaries and joint ventures face conflicting pressures from the parent firm and the local environment. The subsidiaries of multinational companies face pressures for both local adaptation and global integration when they operate in foreign countries. Furthermore, Riliang Qu (2007) has classified subsidiaries roles within the intra-firm organisational networks of multinational companies into four categories, which are receptive, active, autonomous and quiescent subsidiaries. Receptive types of subsidiaries are highly integrated into the multinational companies network of operation and are given relatively little power in making their own decisions in relation to the local markets they serve. For the autonomous subsidiaries, are much less integrated to the multinational companies network operation and have a lot of autonomy powers. The following type is the quiescent type of subsidiaries,

Saturday, January 18, 2020

“Mother” by Grace Paley Essay

The Jewish Grace Paley was born in 1922 and grew up in the Bronx, New York. Quite dedicated in the civil rights movement she started writing short stories in the fifties. Additionally, Paley was involved in the women’s- and the peace movement. She wrote a number of short stories but got never done a whole book. Her stories contain mostly daily people from different ethnic groups, especially of the Jewish population. Grace Paley often tells her stories in an ironical sound and perspective of a female narrator. â€Å"Mother† is a short but profound story. It is told through the flashbacks of a daughter. Pointing out several details, the image where the mother stands in various doorways is the most remarkable one. At the end of a story, there is a sentence â€Å"I wish I could see her in the doorway of the living room.† As a reader, I understand that the narrator utter these words from the bottom of her heart. It is likely to me that there is a mixture of feelings e xpressed in this saying: nostalgia and regret. The first reason of her wish is that she misses her mother. She misses her so much with all what she used to do when she was alive. All her memories seem to revive within her mind. We all know that family sentiments are very delicate, especially sentiments between mother and daughter. Therefore, even years after her death, whenever she misses her mother, everything seems like just happen yesterday. The second reason for her wish is because of her regret or repentance. When her mother was still alive, she made her sad and worried a lot about her. Now she wants to see her mother again to tell her that she has made a great progress. She has become mature and led a good life as her mother always hoped. Also, she feels regretful because her mother died when her mind was full of worry; neither the daughter nor the husband set her mind at rest. If her mother reappeared in the doorway again, she would tell her immediately that she could feel secure about her future and rest in peace. Above a ll else, it is her nostalgia and regret that she wishes to see her mother again in the door. As human beings, people often do not know what they get until it has gone. Consequently, they live with nostalgia and regret. The author uses a lot of stylistics devices to make the story more sentimental. There is a rhetorical question â€Å"what will become of you?† which shows the mother’s concern about her daughter’s future. We can see that the mother really cares  about her daughter. Another impressive stylistic device is when the father complains about his work. He uses a repetition of the word â€Å"talk†. It occurs four times in one paragraph. As a result, he says the words â€Å"talk talk talk talk† back-to-back but, nevertheless, still doesn’t talk to her which shows his indifference. The author uses a quite simple language, and keeps her sentences relatively clear and brief. She might do this to point out that the narrator is just a simple girl, a teenager. The lesson I draw from this story is that we should cherish what we are p ossessing, especially our parents. Their love and care is endless. Like it is said the story, most don’t take much of their mothers’ advice, but later they realize how important they were.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Gay Marriage: the Recognition of Equal Human Rights Essay

In America, people hold on to the Declaration of Independence as an implementation of their rights. Part of the Declaration of Independence clearly states, â€Å"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness† (Jefferson 80). Gays are human beings too, and they should equally be able to enjoy the human rights. If we believe that human rights are equal regardless of their sexual orientation; then why do gays have to struggle for equal positions in the church, law, and psychological equality? Gay people, their families, and their friends are fighting for these rights. They want equality for gays including legal marriage, and marriage benefits that the regular man-woman marriages enjoy. Gay marriage becomes an option because many gay couples want the equality of human rights. Gays realize their rights are being abolished by the fact that they are not allowed to legally marry and enjoy the privileges as married couples. Only twelve states in America and District of Columbia legally allow gay marriage. The twelve states are: Connecticut, Delaware, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington (Millstone). Massachusetts is the first state that legalized gay marriage on May 2004 (Tying the Knot). Although gays can legally marry in these states, the couples have limited rights. DOMA (Defense of Marriage Act) restricts federal marriage benefits; therefore, it prevents gays from receiving the insurance benefits for government employees, Social Security benefits, immigration, and the filing of joint tax returns (Burns). The documentary, Tying the Knot shows that many gay couples stay together for a long period of time, whether they are married or not. They share their lives: mentally, physically, and economically. But when a spouse dies, the other spouse does not get his/her rights as a normal opposite-sex spouse would get, which includes pension benefits and/or the house (belongings). The movie shows a sad reality to this current unfairness toward gay couples. While gays’ rights are being suppressed, the questions start to come up, â€Å"Is being gay an option? †. This question becomes a part of controversy for gay marriage. According to Dan Eden, a writer for an online journal Viewzone since 1996 on his research, â€Å"Homosexuality is a congenital condition much like being ‘left-handed’. † He provides a scientific point of view that homosexuals are born that way; hormones also affect sexuality, beside chromosomes. Homosexual is not a lifestyle, homosexuals are born gays and they do not choose being gay as a lifestyle. The National Memo, a political newsletter since 2011, interviewed people and asked them, â€Å"Do you think people born gay or choose to be gay? † When they answered, the interviewers added another question, â€Å"When did you choose to be straight? † which made people think. The National Memo wants people to think about this, while Eden wants to make a clear statement that â€Å"being gay is not an option†. The Obama Administration has been trying to bring equal rights for gays, by stating that LGBT’s rights (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) also part of the human rights (Clinton). Hillary Rodham Clinton, the US secretary of state in 2009 stated, â€Å"All people deserve to be treated with dignity and have their human rights respected, no matter who they are or whom they love. † It is clear that people have an equal rights and freedom to love, to choose their partner, and to get married despite their sex’s orientation. On the other hand, according to Ben Newman, a public relations director who had been in position as a â€Å"healed gay†, being gay is an option and can be cured. His name has been changed to protect confidentiality. Newman explained this in his story regarding how his family background and childhood experiences made him being attracted towards men, although he was already married to a woman and had children from her. Later on, he followed a reparative therapy: a reverse treatment through psychotherapy to change his sexual orientation. He succeeded to come back to the society as a â€Å"straight† man after 2 years and 3 months in the reparative therapy (Newman). In this situation, although gay marriage is already legal in some states, gay couples still struggle with their positions in government and law, and also with their positions between church and state. In government and law: when will gay couples receive an equal law for their marriage? Does government have the power to define marriage? It seems that even when gay couples are allowed to marry, they are without any marriage rights, because of DOMA. In regard to their position between church and state, there is much religious objection towards gay marriage. In the United States, Christianity and Catholicism are the primary religions. These religions believe in God and believe that the marriage is rightly between a man and a woman. Although certain churches approve gay marriage (Tying the Knot), the fear is, how it might affect the government, and how it might cause people manipulate the marriage to get the government’s benefits (Boston). Furthermore, in State of the Union 2004, President George W. Bush stated: The union of a man and woman is the most enduring human institution, honored and encouraged in all cultures and by every religious faith. Ages of experience have taught humanity that the commitment of a husband and wife to love and to serve one another promotes the welfare of children and the stability of society. Marriage cannot be severed from its cultural, religious and natural roots without weakening the good influence of society (Burns 7). President Bush described marriage as cultural and natural way to expand the society, because of the fact that marriage between man and woman would produce and foster children. These man-woman marriages are honored by faith and beliefs. He does not want the changes in marriage values affect the society in a bad way. In addition, for people that do not agree on gay marriage, they have skepticism about how gay marriages will affect children in the future. Although people assume that gay couples will not have children, but in reality they do, either from previous relationships, adoptions or simply have to raise children from other family’s member. However, children who are raised by gay couples need legal assurance from their â€Å"gay parents†. According to Anne Pollock, a graduate student in social studies from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, â€Å"The first priority of civil marriage should be to provide a secure environment for all children. The religious right’s claim that children benefit from their [antigay activists] assaults against gay families is nothing less than hypocritical. Burns)† If the gay parents do not have equal legal rights, like what stated in DOMA; so that, if something happens to one of the gay parent, their children also will suffer from the consequences. For example, if a working gay spouse gets into accident at work and dies, the problems would show up for the other surviving spouse when they are denied for the support, which she/he needs to live with the children. For this reason, the benefit is future’s assurance for children themselves; lastly, it seems self-righteous to take away these rights from the children. The other skepticism towards gay marriage is that it will harm children. An author of several books about marriage, Maggie Gallagher states, â€Å"First and foremost, children need stable families to become the kind of adults who will in turn provide stable families for their future children†¦ Legalizing same-sex marriage would sanction families that would deprive children of the experience of either motherhood or fatherhood. (Burns)† Gallagher wants people to think that a normal family has a father and a mother to raise their children; these children will look upon their parents to build their own family in the future. The family that does not have man-woman parents will create a different effect to their children. Therefore, Gallagher believes that man-woman marriage will produce children, and on the other hand, gay couples could not produce children. Specifically, gay marriage will harm children mentally and in long term, our population. Moreover, there are other questions toward gay marriage: will it promote social stability or harm society? For years, gay people have been struggling for their recognition, although they get married in a party with friends and families, but they did not get marry legally. However, they have not think about their future assurance such as: the insurance benefits for government employees, Social Security benefits, immigration, or the filing of joint tax returns. Their futures seem uncertain; something might happen and take away the rights that a normal opposite-sex marriage would legally have. In addition, The California Health Interview Survey held a research regarding physical distress from legal same-sex marriage and how they legally recognized themselves affect their mental heath, and it showed various numbers about how important the recognition from society for whom they are (Wight). If gay marriage becomes legal, there is some assurance for their future; and, if they are socially accepted for whom they are, the society will move forward and become a stable and better society. On the other hand, there are skepticisms that gay marriage will harm the society. According to Sam Schulman, a popular New York writer, gay marriage is selfish and degrades moral values from our society (Burns). People deserve to love and choose their partner, but if their choices are not base on acceptable morality, then they should not do it. Gallagher is strengthening Schulman’s opinion; Gallagher points out about how marriage is the needs of man and woman, in terms sexually, to produce children, financially, and socially (Burns). In conclusion, in term of human rights, gays are human too. They have rights to be treated equally. The searching of equality has been happening for years, from the rights of black people, women’s rights to mix-race marriage rights. People have the rights to choose their own partner, their love, and their assurance in the future. Why legalize gay marriage if the marriage itself has taken its rights (DOMA)? People mention morality and society in terms for our children future, by rejecting gay marriage and its rights. Gay marriage is not the only problem that people have nowadays, there are other occurrences that ignore the morality and society; there are crimes that ignore morality values (rape), shooting in schools or public places, robbery, and many other crimes that occur. We live in a world that demands morality in society; but, what kind of morality and society that we have now – do we value ourselves better than gay people?

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Disaster Preparedness Policies At The United States

A disaster refers to an event or situation that is of greater magnitude than an emergency. A Disaster disrupts essential services such as housing, transportation, communications, sanitation, water, and health care; and that requires the response of people outside the community affected (Gebbie). In a world that anything can happen, you have to be prepared for everything. Over decades, the United States has created disaster preparedness policies to help plan strategies before and after a disaster. The biggest disaster relief agency is FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency), there goal is to prepare for, protect against, respond to, recover from and lessen all hazards ( FEMA was discovered in April 1st, 1978 by Jimmy Carter, since then it has taken hit on the most catastrophic natural disasters the United States has ever seen, such as events like Hurricane Katrina and Sandy. Since the policy has been created it has been questioned whether or not if it is a positive asset to the United States. Is it truly helping the people in need or is it actually hurting? Research has shown that as the natural disasters increase, the more corrupt the United States government becomes. Between the years of 1990 and 2002 the United States convicted more than 10,000 public officials in corruption-related crimes (Glasser). A study was done to show the effects of FEMA and it was found that from each additional $100 per capita in FEMA relief increases the average state’s corruptionShow MoreRelatedDisaster Planning And Preparedness For Disasters906 Words   |  4 PagesEvery year in the United States, disasters, whether catastrophes on a national scale such as the 2006 Hurricane Katrina or more localized disasters like the 2013 Northern Colorado floods devastate communities by taking the lives of hundreds of people, and injuring thousands more. 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Wednesday, December 25, 2019

America Needs Same-Sex Marriage and Families Essay

In the state of Massachusetts, same sex marriage has been legal since 2004 and thousands of people have had the right to marry their partners. Although it was a long and difficult process, gay and lesbian couples no longer have to face marriage discrimination in Massachusetts due to their sexual orientation. However, many couples are still barred from this process through other individual state amendments. While it has been difficult to research the exact side effects of same sex marriage, a predominant result has arisen: â€Å"there seems to be no appreciable difference between children brought up in stable homosexual homes and those brought up in stable heterosexual ones† (Sullivan 239). The research that has been conducted looks at a wide†¦show more content†¦Through court cases like Eisenstadt v. Baird(1972), the courts have upheld the right to have children and that it is the â€Å"‘right of the individual, married or single, to be free from unwarranted go vernmental intrusion into matters so fundamentally affecting a person as the decision whether to bear or beget a child’† (Murphy 296). As a legal system, the courts have the responsibility to uphold the law while also taking into consideration the welfare of the child. The justice system would not allow for same sex marriage if it believed that there was any correlation between sexual orientation and unfit parenting. Courts in different states have struck down gay marriage, yet they have upheld the idea that child bearing is an important aspect of marriage. Courts have recently begun to acknowledge gay families by permitting second-parent adoptions (Mohr 60). This change in attitude exemplifies a change in status of gay marriages by recognizing the fact that these couples have the same rights to children as heterosexual families. Although bearing children cannot be part of the definition of marriage, it should not be a reason same sex marriage is illegal. This linkage m ust insinuate that same sex marriage is neither detrimental to the children and is a right that should be privileged. Critics of same sex marriage often argue that children need toShow MoreRelatedEssay about Gay Marriage Does NOT Destroy Traditional Marriage1703 Words   |  7 PagesWhat is marriage? Marriage is defined as the legal union of a man and a woman. According to Psychology Today, marriage is the process by which two people who love each other make their relationship public, official, and permanent. 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And why a topic that has been discussed so many a times needs to be addressed holistically so that all of America can enjoy equal liberties. TRANSTION-Opposition nowadays towards same sex marriage is outdated and irrelevantRead More500 Word Essay on a Kind Thing I Did for Someone630 Words   |  3 Pagesof gay marriage has always been controversial. Anytime the idea of same sex couples being allowed to marry is brought up there’s almost always an argument started. It’s viewed by many as wrong and many think it should remain illegal, but why? If two people are happy, no matter the gender, why should anything stop them from marrying? Male and female, male and male, or female and female, it shouldn’t matter; if they’re happy and want to marry, let them. Most often the idea of gay marriage is viewed